Oligarchy and Democracy in Plato’s Republic (Part 1)

In Books VIII and IX of The Republic, dedicated to imperfect societies, Socrates undertakes a systematic political and psychological survey of the forms of government following the demise of his perfect state, doomed to extinction like all human creations. It is gradually replaced by a new regime, inspired by Sparta’s principles of ‘honour’ and ‘worth’ (or ‘time’ in Ancient Greek), in which war becomes the main preoccupation of rulers chosen among ‘the simpler, hearty types’ instead of the intelligent Guardians ...

Are Kantian Ethics obsolete?

At a time when daily atrocities are committed against innocent populations by self-proclaimed religious supremacists, Kantian ethics seem more and more idealistic and out of touch with present day reality. Indeed, is Kant still topical when, as an agnostic thinker, he continued to regard the God ‘hypothesis’, be it in a conceptual form, as essential to the moral balance of his rational agent? Is introducing God as a major component of an ethical theory the guarantee of 'good' actions to ...