The Causation Conundrum – Knowing Why.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle stated that one cannot claim to have proper knowledge of anything until one has grasped the cause of it. Whether something exists, happens or changes it is assumed that it is as the result of some cause external or internal to it. The why without which nothing could be or happen. This idea is commonly known as causation or the law of cause and effect. It is applicable to all spheres of human knowledge and if ...

TOK and Counterfactual History

"Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it." Ho hum? Heard this before? In the first place, this famous "quotation" is apparently a distortion--albeit a slight distortion--from George Santayana's actual assertion, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. " More to the point, the statement raises important questions about the nature of historical knowledge. In fact, it doesn't really matter what a particular philosopher actually said (or even whether, as is often claimed, ...