Watching Electrons in H+

When atoms react, electrons are exchanged. Now, a team from Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany have revealed movie footage of the movement of electrons. The amazing thing about the process is the speed at which the electrons move. The process is measured in attoseconds - one attosecond is a billionth of a billionth of a second. In order to 'watch' this movement of an electron, H+ (or the molecular hydrogen ion) is used. H+ is used as it is the simplest molecule - ...

Finding the needle

You will have heard of the saying 'like trying to find a needle in a haystack' , well how about this one, 'trying to find a single atom in a crystal'. This phenomena has now been successfully carried out by a research team. Individual atoms of lanthanum have been observed in crystals of calcium titanate. The technique used involves using an electron microscope that has its beam narrowed by a technique called 'abberation-correction'. It is hoped that it will allow scientists an improved ...

Antimatter trap and TOK

  What is in a number (that's the TOK bit)? Well, a great deal. 38 anti-hydrogen atoms (a huge number) were trapped in the LHC in Cern for a (relatively) huge amount of time back in November. By User:Freerk (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia CommonsSo, what is all the fuss? Well, anti-hydrogen is the opposite of hydrogen. It has a positron (not an electron) orbiting an anti-proton (not a proton). Anti-hydrogen was created in the big bang but was ...

Flame Tests and Colours

Following on from yesterdays posting.... Flame colours provide a relatively easy way to identify the possible identity of a number of ions, but what causes the different colours? jJvS4uc4TbU Well, the colour is caused by electron transitions. Electrons moving from an excited energy level to a lower one. When they loose this energy, it is emitted in the form of visible light. Not all the radiation emitted is in the coloured range though - some will be in the UV and IR range. Energy ...

Atomic absorption and emission spectra

In very simple terms, emission or absorption spectra are obtained when electrons absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation and in doing so move from one energy level to another. The emitted energy is in the form of a photon with a specific frequency and this quantifies the difference in energy levels. By viewing the sun, scientists were able to discover a new element, Helium. The following website allows you to see the absorption or emission spectra for all of the elements. http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/elements/Elements.html