On Plato’s educational programme in The Laws

Education or paideia is a central concern to both 'The Republic' and 'The Laws'. However, the educational programme developed in 'The Republic' is heavily biased towards the intellectual development of the future philosopher-Guardians. The ‘productive class’ is not encouraged to rise above its station and for this reason Plato does not see the necessity for the lower class of the ‘perfect state’ to be educated as fully-fledged citizens. 'The Laws', on the other hand, place a much higher premium on ...

Plato and the Spirit:

Plato’s tri-partite division of the soul is far from convincing when it comes down to the distinction drawn between Reason, Desire and Spirit. As Julia Annas points out in her Introduction to Plato’s Republic: ‘there is no satisfactory argument to show that spirit is really distinct from reason, and so a distinct part of the soul.’ Every new student to Plato’s approach to Philosophy soon learns about his idiosyncratic interpretation of the soul as an immortal, ethereal entity, which once ...