Isomers of Water

A week or so ago I stumbled across an article on the BBC website talking about isomers of water. At first, I thought a mistake had been made and that the article should have used the word 'isotopes'. I was thinking it was something to do with 'heavy water', water that contains the heavier isotope of hydrogen, deuterium. How wrong I was. (There is a lesson here: don't make assumptions!) The article was talking about the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms. We ...

New Release: IB Environmental Systems and Societies – Study & Revision Guide

We are delighted to announce the publication of our new study and revision guide for IB Environmental Systems and Societies (ESS). Written for the requirements of the 2017–2023 exam sessions, this revision guide offers succinct coverage of the whole syllabus for Environmental Systems and Societies, with extensive self-test material to help students prepare for mocks and final exams. Clearly structured to match the curriculum, it offers exam tips and original case studies.   Here’s what author Adrian Palmer said about his book: I have ...

Hydrogen bonding and the forming of a snowflake

Water molecules are polar molecules, the electronegative  oxygen with two pairs of lone electrons providing a 'slightly' negative charge that acts with the 'slightly' positive hydrogen atoms to form the incredibly important hydrogen bonds, as illustrated here. It is the dipolarity of water molecules that give rise to the cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties that you need to learn [Topic 2.2 Water] The video provides a little seasonal focus to the nature of a water molecule and illustrates how its chemical properties give rise to the ...

Water, water, everywhere

Regular readers will probably have realised I like writing about water. Especially water found on other places than the earth. I was glancing through New Scientist magazine the other day and came across an article on Triton, one of Neptune's moons.  And guess what .... .... Yup, it is thought to have liquid water. Which means it is the third moon in our solar system that is thought to contain liquid water (along with Europa around Jupiter and Enceladus around Saturn). And where ...

It’s water … but not as we know it

Think glaciers. Think ice skaters. Think movement. Think water. A thin layer of water allows the glacier to slide or the ice skater to skate. But it may not be water a we know it ..... ..... It is thought that this lubricating water is in fact super dense - up to 17% more dense an 'unbelievable' amount according to the head of the research team making this claim. Experiments have shown that this liquid is present at temperatures up to -17 oC. ...

Oxygen

Dione - not something that you would probably hear about in everyday conversations bu tin the next few years this name may become one of the most important words in our language. Why? Well first of all, what is Dione? It is, in fact, one of Saturn's many moons. Image kindly reproduced according to the licence at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dione3_cassini_big.jpg Why has it been thrust into the limelight? Well, it is thought that it has a thin layer of molecular oxygen around the moon. So what is ...

Waterworld – but not as we know it

Scientists believe that they have discovered a planet whose surface is almost entirely composed of water. Named, GJ 1214b, it is found around 40 light years from Earth. This planet has been called a 'super earth' - larger than the earth but smaller that say, Jupiter. Chemically, what makes this an interesting planet is that it would have a surface temperature of around 200 oC and a pressure greater than that here on earth. This would mean that theoretically, the water may exist ...

IYC (2)

Yes, IYC is correct (not NYC) - if you missed yesterdays blog post you may be surprised to read that 2011 was officially the 'International Year of Chmeistry' (IYC) - yes, I was quite surprised to read this as well - in my opinion, not the best advertised international year out there! Anyway, I have found some quite interesting articles that I intend sharing with you below: First up, it is worth checking out the events page - there may still be ...

Brinicles

A superb TV series is currently taking people in the UK by storm. It is called 'Frozen Planet' and narrated by Richard Attenborough - it really is a classic and has relied heavily on the use of new technologies to aid its filming. The programme focuses in on life in the Antarctic and Arctic and has so far covered the seasons. Last night it was Winter and some superb footage was released of a 'brinicle'. Unfortunately, if you live outside the uK ...

A Space Ocean

Comet Hartley 2 has been thrust into the limelight during the last couple of weeks after a report on it published by Nature. The comet has caused a bit of a problem for NASA scientists. And the problem .... Well, the water it contains is more like Earth's water than water on other comets. The problem is deuterium, the heavier isotope of hydrogen. The handful (six or so) of comets that have had their water content analysed seem to have twice as much deuterium. ...